Suppose socialism had never become anything more than an intellectual movement, i.e., that no actual regime came to power calling itself socialist and putting into place policies and institutions it believed were socialist. What would classical liberalism/libertarianism look like today if that had been the way history unfolded? How much of the content, rhetoric, and self-conception of modern libertarianism is the result of the battle with socialism?
Without socialism, might libertarianism be more “leftist” as a result of not aligning with conservatives against state socialism? Without socialism, might libertarianism have never developed the more sophisticated understanding of the market it gained from things like the socialist calculation debate?
I come with questions, not answers.